Orthopedics treatmenst:

Knee replacement (partial, total)

In knee joint replacement, the fractured end of the bone and any remaining cartilage are removed and replaced with metal and plastic parts. Plastic acts like stiff cartilage and helps the joint to move freely. Also, the interconnected parts of the knee joint allow you to bend your knee and also to hold its steel.
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Hip replacement (partial, total)

Prosthetic arthroplasty which is also called joint replacement is a type of surgery; In which, after removing the articular surfaces, replace them with metal, ceramic, or plastic parts called artificial joints. This type of surgery is most commonly used on the hip and knee joints.

Hip replacement is an orthopedic surgery that replaces the damaged hip joint with implant prosthesis. This surgery is performed to reduce pain and improve patient activity.

The use of artificial joints can be substituted for only one articular surface or both. For example, in the thigh joint, if only the femoral head is severely damaged and the acetabulum is healthy, only the femoral head can be replaced with a metal head called a Prosthesis. This type of surgery is called hemiarthroplasty or replacement of one half of the joint. In cases where both the femur and the acetabular cavity are replaced with an artificial one, surgery is called total joint arthroplasty.

These definitions apply to other joints in the body, and replacement of only one part of the joint is called arthroplasty and partial replacement of both joint bones.

Ankle replacement (partial, total)

Ankle replacement surgery or ankle arthroplasty is a procedure in which a damaged and painful ankle joint is removed and an artificial joint is used instead.

Although it is less common than hip replacement or knee replacement, this surgery is progressively expanding the development of artificial ankle joints and improved techniques, in some cases, can be a good substitute for Arthrodesis surgery.

What is the cause of ankle replacement?

The most common cause of ankle joint replacement is Osteoarthritis or ankle joint wear. This wear and tear causes pain and restriction and swelling of the ankle and makes it difficult for the patient to walk. Replacing this broken joint with an artificial joint can greatly reduce the patient's pain.

In the ankle joint surgery, part of the tibia bone and part of the talus bone are removed Then instead of these two parts two artificial joints are employed.

Total joint replacement: where both joint surfaces are replaced with artificial materials

Hemiarthroplasty (partial joint replacement): where only one joint surface is replaced with artificial materials

Shoulder replacement (partial, total)

In a Shoulder joint replacement procedure, the affected parts of the shoulder are removed and replaced with artificial materials called prostheses.
Replacements can include only the replacement of the head bone (ball) or replacement of both the ball and the cavity (glenoid). Joint replacement is an effective and safe procedure for relieving pain and helps you resume your daily activities.

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Elbow joint replacement

Elbow replacement is a type of surgery in which the severely damaged and painful elbow joint is replaced with an artificial joint.

This type of surgery, although is not as common as hip replacement or knee replacement, can improve the efficiency of many patients.

In the elbow replacement surgery, the lower articular surface of the humerus and upper articular surfaces of the radius and ulna bones are removed, and then the prosthetic joint, which is a hinge, is replaced. The synthetic joint is made of metal and plastic called polyethylene. This joint has two long appendages called bundles. The upper bundle goes into the dorsal canal and the lower bundle into the ulna bone canal. Bonding of these bands into the bones is usually done using a special adhesive called Bone Cement. However, a method other than cement may be used to attach the metal components to the bone. In this method, the supernatant of the metal used is made with pores to form a strong bond between the metal and bone as they grow into bone cells. The first type is called the cement type and the second type is the cementless joint.

Wrist joint replacement

Wrist joint replacement is much less common than knee or hip replacement. However, in some patients with severe wrist joint damage, this surgery can greatly reduce patient pain and improve wrist movements and abilities.

Why wrist joint replacement

In some diseases, the wrist joint cartilage gradually becomes thinner and disappears after a while. This process causes the bones to become eroded and cause pain and movement limitations. The most common of these diseases are arthritis and rheumatoid arthritis. In these cases, wrist joint replacement can prevent bone fractures, thereby eliminating pain and greatly improving joint range of motion.

How is wrist joint surgery performed?

In a wrist replacement surgery, the doctor cuts the lower radius bone and also removes the upper row of wrist bones and then inserts an artificial joint between the two surfaces. The prosthetic joint has a metal plate that attaches to the radius bone with a base. On this metal plate is another plate made of polyethylene (a kind of plastic) in the form of a plate. Another metal plate, which is circular, attaches to the remaining wrist and metacarpal bone by a base.

Meniscus repair

The meniscus is one of the important parts of the knee. This part plays a knocking role on the knee and causes knee stiffness, rupture of the knee can cause knee function to be impaired and may interfere with daily life.

Symptoms of Miniscule Knee Rupture (sometimes referred to as Meniscus Knee (Occur When Individuals Perform Rotational Motions During Exercise or Other Activities and as one rotates the lower leg and foot are locked in another position which causes weight to fall on the knees. This injury involves mild rupture of the Minsk knee (no injury to the Minsk) and severe ruptures that may require to treat the rupture of the Minsk.


There are three surgical procedures for knee surgery.

Surgery to repair a Meniscule Knee Rupture: If the rupture is more than 1 to 22 cm in size and an area adjacent to the blood vessels where may improve occurs, the doctor recommends repair with a suture.

Surgery with partial removal of the meniscus (partial meniscectomy): When the rupture is in a part of the minuscule that has a poor healing process, it removes the torn edge of the minuscule and allows the joint to move.

Surgery to remove the knee minuscule (Total meniscectomy): <

This procedure is performed to treat the ruptured Miniscule Knee that is not treated by other methods.

Posterior cruciate ligament (PCL) reconstruction

Posterior Cruciate Ligament (PCL) is the strongest ligament of the knee. Therefore, the rupture of the PCL is much less common in knee injuries than anterior cruciate ligament(ACL). In many cases, PCL rupture is not diagnosed. The PCL ligament is located at the posterior end of the ACL and prevents the tibial bone backward movement.

PCL injury and rupture are usually caused by a direct knee injury in a bent position. For example, the impact of a knee on the dashboard in accidents or falling on a bent knee in sports such as football and skiing.

reconstruction surgery

Sewing the sides of a ruptured PCL does not repair it so the torn PCL must be rebuilt. PCL is replaced by a graft (the tissue used to repair the new ligament), which can be either auto grafted or made from an allograft. The graft needed for PCL reconstruction is usually made from the Achilles tendon (with bone) donated from the cadaver (Allograft).

Posterior cruciate ligament reconstruction surgery is performed with only a few small incisions. And since it is less invasive than open surgery, it has fewer complications and less recovery time.

Achilles tendon repair

Achilles tendon surgery is a type of surgery to repair an injured Achilles tendon. The Achilles tendon is a fiber-like portion at the bottom of the foot that attaches the calf muscle to the heel. This tendon is the largest tendon in the body to be used for walking, running and jumping.

In some cases, the tendon may be torn or cut off by the intense force of sudden physical activity. The condition can occur in sudden movement or rotation of the foot. Turning leg too much outwards can increase the risk of tendon rupture. Tendon rupture causes pain and swelling around the heel, and the foot loses the bending ability.

During surgery, a cut is made on the back of the leg. If the tendon is torn, the surgeon sutures the two tendons together. If some part of the tendon has injured greatly, the surgeon will remove the injured part and repair other healthy areas by suturing.

If the injury to most areas of the tendon is severe, the surgeon may replace all or part of the Achilles tendon. This is done by removing one tendon from another area of ​​the foot. In some cases, surgery to repair the Achilles tendon can be performed as minimally invasive surgery. In this process, one or more small incisions are made instead of one large incision. An arthroscope may also be used to help repair it.

Disc hernia surgery

The discs are located in the spine between each vertebra and act as a shock-absorber for the spine bones. The disc herniation (also called dislocation or rupture of the disc) is a part of the disc nucleus that is ejected from the ring due to rupture or dislocation and under pressure and enters the spinal canal.

The herniated discs are usually in the early stages of degeneration. The spinal canal has limited space that is insufficient for the spinal nerve and the dislocated segment. Because of this movement, the disc presses on the spinal nerves and often produces pain that can be severe.

Disc herniation can occur in any part of the spine but is more common in the lumbar spine and also occurs in the neck (cervical spine).


If careful treatment options, such as physiotherapy and medication do not completely reduce or end the pain, the doctor may recommend surgery to the patient.

Discectomy: Surgical resection or partial removal of the intervertebral disc.


Surgery to remove the bony arch or lamina of a vertebra .

Laminectomy is a type of surgery that is used to relieve pressure on the nerve roots coming out of the spine. This type of surgery removes a part of the bone called the lamina that is placed on the nerve to put less pressure on it.

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Spinal fusion

Fusion of vertebrae in the spine means that the vertebrae are joined together. In this type of surgery, two or more vertebrae may be attached. The purpose of this surgery is to relieve pain, instability, or other symptoms by removing movement between the vertebrae.

The method by which bone is grafted onto the spine and a rigid joint is formed between two or more vertebrae. In this method, tools such as screws are used to further maintain this fusion.

How it is performed?

For fusion surgery, the surgeon may enter the patient’s body through the abdomen and observe the vertebrae, and then connect two or more adjacent vertebrae from the front.

This can also be done from the back as the patient lies on the abdomen and then the surgeon views the back surface of the vertebrae and attaches them to each other with a slit in the back of the spine. Another way is to enter the chest and see the vertebrae from the side and then connect them to the lateral and lateral surfaces.

The doctor uses a graft or bone graft to attach adjacent vertebrae. To do this, they remove pieces of bone from the patient's pelvis (from his iliac bone) and then remove the intervertebral disc as a large piece instead of the disc. After a while, this bone attaches to the vertebrae from both sides, up and down. Another way is to crush this bone and place the small pieces of bone-in and around the vertebrae. This can also cause welding of adjacent vertebrae

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