Gastroenterology treatmenst:


Colonoscopy is a procedure to probe and checkup the patients' intestinal ‎walls from outside of the body. It is offered for people who are above 50 or have symptoms of bowel disease. ‎‏ ‏this is a ‎diagnosis way to discover ‎disease and problems‎.‎‏ this procedure is done by ‏colonoscope which has a narrow and flexible tube‎. ‎it has 150 ‏cm long ‎and a small ‏camera of about ‏‎1 ‎cm in diameter. ‏this camera inters the body from ‎the bottom and shows inside ‎of your colon‎. ‎before the test doctor gives you ‏laxatives ‎ and instructions about how to use it. ‎it cleans your colon so they can see inside clearly.

Colonoscopy which usually takes about 15 to 60 minutes is an effective way to find problems such as bowel polyp‎, ‎tumor or colon ‏cancer and to have a biopsy or removing the polyp‎.

After the colonoscopy, the patient should be monitored for one or two hours until the effects of drugs disappear.

If the doctor is experienced in this field, In most cases, it has no pain and no side effects; However, if you are removing a polyp or having a biopsy, you may see drops of blood which is normal and disappear in a couple of days.

Sigmoidoscopic polypectomy

The large intestine in our body consists of some parts, the last part which is close to the rectum is called sigmoid colon and its function is to hold feces until you can excrete it.

When the sigmoid colon is needed to be checked precisely for the existence of ulcers, abnormal cells, polyp or cancer doctor may use sigmoidoscopy; Then if it indicates polyps in the bowel, since large polyps can lead to rectal bleeding, abdominal pain or bowel irregularities, they should be removed by Polypectomy.

Polypectomy is a way to remove these polyps and get rid of pain or other symptoms. This action is done simultaneously with sigmoidoscopy or colonoscopy. Based on the size of polyp the remove is different. For small polyp biopsy is good but for a larger one, a snare may be used. If the size of the polyp is very large or there are other problems that make removing a challenge, other techniques should be used.

In order to get ready for polypectomy, your colon should be clear. There are some ways you can use two or three days before the procedure to have a clear colon.

Gastroscopic endoscopy
Oesophagealpyloricduodenal dilatation

At the end of the stomach there is a valve that connects the stomach to the ‎duodenum, it is called pyloric sphincter. The pyloric sphincter controls the ‎passage of digested food from the stomach to the duodenum. In some cases, ‎Muscles surrounded this sphincter become tight and make the passage of foods ‎difficult . In adults this causes vomit and reflux, weight loss and pain. In infants, the ‎pyloric stenosis is an unusual problem but if it occurs, the baby will vomit the milk ‎by pressure because of obstruction. The result is dehydration and less and dark ‎pee, problems in gaining weight and hunger.

For adults in most cases to fix the ‎problem dilation with a balloon is recommended. During this process, a narrow ‎tube will be sent into the stomach from the mouth when it reaches the pyloric ‎sphincter a balloon is expanded to dilate the muscles. The next treatment is stent ‎placement to dilate the sphincter. For babies there is another treatment that includes ‎surgery which is not complicated, it is a cut in pyloric muscle to make it lose. ‎This is a common surgery for infants and it is safe. If there is a sign of ‎dehydration, liquids and nutrients are transmitted to his body by Intravenous ‎injection.

Colonoscopic polypectomy

An intestinal polyp is a small group of cells that form on the lining of the colon. Most colon polyps are not at risk, but over time, some colon polyps can lead to colon cancer, which can often be fatal in later stages and cause death.

Most polyps have no symptoms. Larger polyps can cause stool blood but are usually asymptomatic. So the best way to diagnose polyps is to screen for people who have no symptoms. Several screening methods are available: stool specimens for blood testing, sigmoidoscopy to examine the lower third of the colon or use of radiological tests such as barium enema or CT colonography. If one of these tests finds or suspects polyps, the doctor recommends colonoscopy to eliminate them which is called Colonoscopic polypectomy.

Any diagnosed or suspected polyps will be removed during this minimally invasive procedure.

Laparoscopy appendectomy

The appendix is ​​a small tubular sac that attaches to the colon. This small bag is located just below your right abdomen. When the appendix becomes inflamed and swollen, the bacteria quickly multiply and infect, causing a large amount of pus and infectious substances to form inside it. The accumulation of pus and infectious bacteria in the appendix causes abdominal pain around the umbilical cord and its pain extends to the right abdomen. Walking and coughing can aggravate appendicitis pain. It may also cause nausea, vomiting, and diarrhea. Appendectomy is the only standard treatment for appendicitis.

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Foreign body removal

Swallowing foreign bodies is a medical emergency. Some foreign bodies can even lead to mediastinal and patient death. Swallowing foreign bodies is sometimes inadvertent, such as tailors putting a needle in the corner of their mouths and occasionally swallowing that needle, or chicken or fishbone while eating or coins or a battery especially an alkaline type which sometimes is eaten by children.

External objects that have sharp or worn surfaces, such as pins or bones or needles scratches the inner of esophagus poultry or stuck there which after 24 hours can cause mediastinal and ultimately septicemia and death.

In addition, remaining foreign body, such as the hair of the head, which is constantly swallowed by some young girls, becomes a rubbish while gathering in stomach which is called tricobozoar, and can remain in the stomach for months or years, even the stomach acid is unable to dissolve these foreign bodies. This can lead to anorexia and pain in patients who need to be resolved either by endoscopy or by the use of chemicals.

Endoscopic Foreign body removal is a low-risk way to eliminate items that are swallowed and stuck in the gastrointestinal tract. Doctors typically perform upper endoscopy, also known as the esophagus, to remove the items. During EGD, your doctor examines the lining of the digestive tract, including the esophagus, stomach, and upper part of the small intestine to check for damage.


The endoscope is a thin, flexible tube with a camera on one end that enters the body through a surgical incision or through the mouth or anus. An endoscope is a device that can be viewed through the esophagus, stomach, and duodenum. Endoscopy is used to examine different parts of the body, including the joints, lungs, bladder, digestive tract and appendix.

Some types of endoscopy require special preparations, such as cleansing the stomach or intestine. Your doctor may ask you not to eat or drink before surgery, or to prescribe laxatives. People undergoing endoscopy are usually relieved by sedative medications to minimize their pain and discomfort.

Today's endoscopes are very advanced. They have video cameras that can be viewed directly from a monitor (TV). These endoscopes also have tubes for suctioning or pulling fluid into the stomach outward, sending air into the body parts and inflating them, and passing special devices for biopsy.

Achalasia cardia dilation

Achalasia is a disease that results in a sphincter or muscle located at the esophagus and at the junction of the stomach, cannot open normally and transfer food to the stomach.


Achalasia is a disease characterized by symptoms and the patient’s complaints rather than physical signs and findings. symptoms are dysphagia and regurgitation, chest pain, weight loss, nocturnal cough, difficulty with burping, and more.

Because the nerve damage caused by achalasia is irreversible, treatment is simply to prevent its complications.

The disorder caused by this disease is the lack of complete esophageal drainage. As a result, the effective way to overcome lower sphincter pressure is by weakening and tearing the muscles in this area. In addition, treatment can prevent complications such as esophageal cancer.

There are four main treatment options for achalasia, including drug therapy, botulinum toxin injection, ethanolamine oleate, pneumatic dilatation, and cardiomyotomy, all of which help reduce sphincter pressure and improve esophageal discharge.


Vertical banded gastroplasty is a common physiologic way to limit gastric volume, which reduces weight by reducing solid food intake. Surgery involves the creation of a small sac at the beginning of the stomach and a narrow outlet (Ostoma). Vertical gastroplasty is merely a restrictive procedure that resembles the Non-Adjustable Gastric Band. In fact, the same bands were initially used for non-adjustable rings, but for later rounds, a narrow strip of proline mesh (which is sewn to the outlet (Ostoma) patch or stomach chamber) was used instead.

Stomach surgeries can permanently reduce food intake and are more acceptable to the patient than jaw sealing.

Three types of gastric surgery to treat obesity are:
  • Horizontal gastroplasty
  • Bypass the stomach
  • Vertical gastroplasty.
Colonoscopic balloon dilatation

Colonoscopy is one of the diagnostic methods that are not much different from endoscopy. The colonoscope is made of a small, flexible tube with a lens and light source. When this tube enters the colon, it shows an image of the intestine on the screen.

During the test, some air enters the colon through the tube to open the colon and also the dilatation of these parts may be performed during Sigmoidoscopy or colonoscopy by the use of balloon dilatation so as to open a narrowing.

Laparoscopy assisted hemicolectomy

Removing all or parts of the colon in a surgical procedure is called a colectomy and hemicolectomy is a surgery done to remove one side of the colon.

If this procedure is done by the aid of the Laparoscope, it is called Laparoscopy-assisted hemicolectomy.

The word "laparoscopy" means looking inside the abdominal cavity using a camera with a cable. For laparoscopic surgery, 3 to 6 small incisions (5 to 10 mm) are made in the abdominal area. Laparoscopes and special laparoscopic devices enter the abdominal area through these small incisions. Then the surgeon, guided by a laparoscope, takes pictures of the organs of the gastrointestinal tract in a visual monitor.

Sigmoidoscopic balloon dilatation

Sigmoidoscopy is one of the methods of diagnosis for a variety of diseases. In this way, the doctor can examine the sigmoid area of ​​the colon and examine problems such as types of ulcers, polyps, abnormal cells, cancer, and so on. It should be noted that sigmoidoscopy is performed without pain and bleeding and will not cause any particular problems.

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Laparascopy cardiomyotomy

Achalasia is the most common esophageal motor disorder. People with this disorder may have difficulty swallowing solid foods or liquids. Patients may initially experience symptoms such as food stasis (dysphagia), which food may become difficult to swallow as the disease progresses. The disease may progress gradually over the years, most of which the patient does not notice until the symptoms worsen. Patients may also complain of symptoms such as Gastroesophageal reflux pain, chest pain, and heartburn. If left untreated, weight loss and malnutrition may also occur.

Esophageal Muscle Tissue Surgery(cardiomyotomy)

The surgical option for achalasia is known as "Heller myotomy" (muscle tissue excision). This procedure is usually performed by laparoscopy or by a few small incisions in the abdominal wall, and the patient may also undergo open surgery. The surgery involves precision cutting of the thick and incompatible portion of the lower esophageal sphincter, which will then open the obstructive path. This is a gold standard for the treatment of this disease. The method is combined with a partial anti-reflux procedure, known as "partial fundoplication," to prevent the uncontrolled return of food to the esophagus in the future.

Oesophageal metal stenting

Esophagus is tubular at the beginning of the human gastrointestinal tract at the pharynx and stomach contract. Food after being swallowed bypassing the esophagus enters the stomach.

Obstruction and the narrowing in your esophagus prevents food from passing through

Metal stent inside esophagus relieves stenosis in the esophagus and helps patients to eat comfortably.

Liver cyst

Liver cysts are fluid-filled sacs that kind inside the liver. They are benign masses. This means that the liver cyst is not cancerous growth. These cysts generally do not require treatment unless they cause symptoms and it rarely affects liver function.

Most cysts grow singly, although some patients may have multiple cysts. Symptoms associated with liver cysts include abdominal bloating, discomfort or pain. A small number of patients also have bleeding cysts and have severe abdominal pain and sudden, severe shoulder pain. The bleeding stops on its own and the pain heals after a few days.

Liver cysts are usually found by ultrasound or computed tomography (CT).

Simple liver cysts are always benign. Removing fluid from the cyst with a needle is not as effective as the cyst fills up again within a few days. The best treatment is to get rid of a large part of the cyst wall.

Unlike simple liver cysts, cystic tumors are masses that can become malignant over years. Symptoms of cystic tumors are similar to those seen with simple cysts. Symptoms include fullness, discomfort, and pain. Liver tests are usually normal unless cancer has progressed. Ultrasound and computed tomography are the best imaging modalities to detect cystic tumors that contain solids and liquid. Because of the likelihood of malignancy, cystic tumors should be completely removed by open surgery (not laparoscopic). The recurrence rate after surgery is very low.

Liver transplantation

A surgical procedure to remove the patient's liver and replace it with a healthy donated liver.

In most liver transplant operations, the liver of deceased donors is used, although a living donor can also donate the liver.

Liver transplantation is needed when the liver loses its normal function. This change in function or failure can occur abruptly (acute failure) or during a time such as infection, drug overdose or long-term problems.

In most cases, a direct transplant technique is used where the patient's liver is removed and replaced with a donor at the same anatomical location. The donated liver is kept in cold saline (normal saline) for up to 8 hours for transfer.

Liver transplantation is a therapeutic approach for the treatment of end-stage liver disease and acute failure. The surgery typically involves three surgeons, two anesthesiologists, and four nurses. The surgery takes about 4 to 18 hours depending on the outcome.


Gastrectomy is a surgery to remove all or part of the stomach.

Gastrectomy Surgery is one of the most common surgeries in the world to combat obesity or gastric cancer.

This treatment is performed in two ways:
  • open
  • closed or laparoscopic
Types of Gastrectomy:
  • Total gastrectomy: Complete gastric resection
  • Subtotal: Removing the bottom of the stomach
Ultra sound guided liver biopsy

Abdominal masses, such as liver metastases or pancreatic lesions, can be resected by ultrasound or CT scan.

The site of the suspected lesion is first identified in the image and then, with subsequent images, a biopsy needle is directed to the site of the lesion.

Ultrasound-guided biopsy techniques or CT scans have greatly assisted in the diagnosis of surgical diseases and have saved many patients from unnecessary invasive laparotomy in benign lesions and inactive tumors.

This technique can be used for biopsy of a suspected lymph node around the aorta to determine lymphoma staging or follow-up of tumor treatment.

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