How to Donate Bone Marrow
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Identify The Best Donor For Bone Marrow Transplant

bone marrow transplant
There are many factors involved in getting a donor organ, one of which is the matching between the patient's HLA and the donor which can be done through The blood sample test or the cheek swab.

Received blood sample conditions

The blood sample must be heparinized and the minimum volume required for HLA typing is 3 cc.

What is Human Leukocyte Antigens (HLA)?

Human Leukocyte Antigens refers to specific markers (antigens) on the surface of all cells of the body and platelets that each individual can express on their white blood cell surface or DNA. HLA antigens are important in identifying self-cells; if cells with different HLA are present in the body, the immune system will secrete an antibody against it, leading to an immune response.
bone marrow transplant

HLA Typing Test

To determine the types of HLA in the body, a test called HLA typing is used. One application of the HLA typing test in the process of organ or tissue transplantation is to determine the immunological response and rejection of the transplant by determining the donor and recipient HLAs and their similarity.
HLA genes play critical roles in organ and bone marrow transplantation. The primary condition for transplant is the Histocompatibility of the HLA genes, especially the HLA class II genes in the recipient and donor; therefore, precise determination of the high-resolution genotype of these genes is crucial in the transplant.
Histocompatibility means being histo or tissue-compatible which is used in transplant to describe the similarity of the tissue HLA antigens of a donor and recipient. The more similar they are the more successful transplantation patient will have , especially in bone marrow transplant that requires near-perfect similarity .
HLA typing can be performed in several ways, including serological, flow cytometric, and molecular methods. In the serological method, white blood cells are adjacent to different environments with different antibodies. In this case, for example, if there is HLA-A1 on the white blood cells, the immune complex will form in the environment where the shed antibody will be visible by microscopy. HLA typing is performed molecularly by STR. This method can be used with smaller volumes and can be achieved with the lowest possible error coefficient. This method is used in identifying bone marrow transplant donor.

How to donate bone marrow?

After registering for a donation, the individual performs an HLA test to determine its type which is used to match patients and donors.
Then their HLA variant is added to the donor database and a registry physician begins a search to try and find a patient-specific type for their patient.
In this way, the proteins in the blood cells will be compared to see if they are similar to the receptor protein. Contact the donor if the protein specified is present. The more the type of donor tissue resembles the type of patient, the better the likelihood of accepting the patient's transplant.

The following tests are performed on hematopoietic stem cell donors:
History and physical examination
Serum creatinine, electrolytes and liver function studies
Serological studies for cytomegalovirus (CMV), herpes virus, HIV RNA, anti-HIV antibodies, hepatitis B and C viruses, human T-cell lymphotropic virus 1/2 (HTLV-I / II) and syphilis (VDRL). In autologous donation, CMV and VDRL testing is not required
ABO for blood type , HLA type , Chest radiography , Electrocardiography (ECG)

Test performed before bone marrow transplantation

Several tests are performed on patients prior to bone marrow transplantation to identify possible problems.
Tests include:
  • Type of tissue and types of blood tests
  • Chest radiography
  • Pulmonary function tests
  • CT or CAT scan
  • Cardiac function testing including electrocardiogram and echocardiogram (ECG)
  • Bone marrow biopsy
  • Examine a person's skeleton
In addition, a complete dental exam prior to bone marrow transplantation is performed to reduce the risk of infection. Other precautions will be taken before transplantation to reduce the risk of patient infection.

The result of bone marrow transplantation

The result of the bone marrow transplant depends on:
  • Type of Transplant
  • How much the cells are genetically similar to that of the patient
  • Patient’s condition and disease
  • Patient age and general health
  • Type and dose of chemotherapy or radiation therapy used before transplantation
  • Having any side effects
Patients whose condition is stable or in recovery will have a more successful transplant compared to someone who has a subsequent transplant or relapses. Young people have a better chance of recovery when transplanted.
Unclear disease transplant have more favorable outcomes, if the donor is the identical twin, the survival rate will be from 70% to 90%, if the patient is not related to the donor, the survival rate will be 36% to 65%.
A bone marrow transplant may treat the disease completely or partially. If the transplant is successful, patients can return to their normal daily activities as soon as they are recovered. Complete recovery of a patient typically takes up to a year.

For more information on Bone Marrow Transplant and donating, check out:

Author:Maryam Shiani

1 Comment

  1. Like!! I blog quite often and I genuinely thank you for your information. The article has truly peaked my interest.

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