Bone Marrow Transplant(BMT)February 8, 2020
Identify The Best Donor For Bone Marrow TransplantFebruary 12, 2020
Bone marrow contains a soft, spongy substance that is found in the bone. It contains immature cells that makeup blood stem cells such as white blood cells, red blood cells as well as platelets.
During bone marrow transplant, cells taken from the donor are transplanted to the patient through a vein to replace new cells after a long period of chemotherapy on the patient with the aim of destroying their bone marrow. His bone marrow is destroyed.
The first step in the bone marrow transplant process is to identify the medical team that is highly prepared to harvest stem cells from the donor and doing the transplant. In this regard, our company I.H.T as a facilitator that knows and collaborates with leading physicians in the country is committed to helping you make the best choice.
Bone marrow donation techniques
Stem cell donation is divided into three categories :
- 1.PBSC donation
- 2.bone marrow donation
- 3.cord blood donation
These donation processes are very simple and, as many people imagine, will not give the donor much pain or side effects.
1.Peripheral blood stem cell (PBSC)donation
PBSC is a non-surgical more commonly performed method when it comes to collecting stem cells.
The donor for a short period of time (approximately 4 or 5 days prior to the bone marrow donation process) should use certain medications to enhance the stem cells and release them into the peripheral(circulating) blood. At this stage, in a process of 4 to 6 hours, the cells released into the peripheral blood are recovered from the vein by a machine attached to the donor body and the remainder returned to the blood.
2.bone marrow donation
In cases where the bone marrow needs to be taken directly from the donor, the individual undergoes general anesthesia or local anesthesia, and bone marrow cells are collected without any discomfort or pain, from the pelvic bone or in some cases, the sternum.
None of these methods poses a risk to the donor. Even after harvesting bone marrow directly, the removed cells are replaced shortly after the procedure.
Recovery and return to the pre-donation status
In peripheral blood stem cell donation, a few days before the cells are collected there may be a headache or bone or muscle pain due to medical injection. These complications will be resolved soon after donation.
In bone marrow donation, the lower back may feel pain and be sour for several days. Most donors return to their normal lives within a few days. The donated bone marrow will also be completely replaced within 4-6 weeks.
3.cord blood donation
At the time of birth, a small amount of blood remains in the umbilical cord .This is known as cord blood. Until recently, the cord as biological waste was discarded, but today it is known that cord blood contains large amounts of stem cells and, if so, maintenance can be used to treat some types of illnesses like some types of cancers.
It is a kind of allogeneic transplant. Stem cells are separated immediately after birth from the newborn baby's cord. Stem cells are frozen and stored for as long as necessary for transplant. Cord blood cells are very immature, so they need less adaptation, but blood counts take longer to recover.
Today about 20% of transplant cases stem cells are by cord blood. Cord blood stem cell transplant has many benefits, such as:
- Easy collection and access
- Being safe for mother / baby
- No need for full HLA compliance
- Reduction the possibility of transplant rejection and GVHD rejection
despite the mentioned benefits, it has some limitations, including:
The low volume of cord blood and the small number of stem cells in it
Slow transplant process in the host body
Delay in neutrophilic and platelet retrieval
Who can donate bone marrow?
Below are some general guidelines for bone marrow donation ,these guidelines are for protecting the health and safety of the donor and recipient. Donors are encouraged to contact their local center for detailed information.
- Anyone who wants to be a donor must register his or her name on the donor list. Potential donors must be healthy between the ages of 18 and 60 years.
- If matched with a transplant recipient, each donor should undergo a full medical examination before donation and be free of infection.
- People taking regular medicines can sign up for bone marrow donation as long as they are healthy and they will be under medical control until donation.
Medications that the donor is authorized to take include pregnancy control pills, thyroid medicines. Antihistamines, antibiotics, eye drops and topical medications such as skin creams. Anxiolytics and antidepressants are allowed as long as conditions are under control.
Those with these conditions cannot be donors:
- During pregnancy
- Someone who uses intravenous medications but has not prescribed it.
- A person who has a positive blood test for hepatitis B or hepatitis C
- By those with specific medical conditions, such as those with certain types of cancer or heart disease.
- People with Lyme disease, malaria or those with tattoos must wait at least a year before donating bone marrow.