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What is a colonoscopy and when should we have a colonoscopy?

Colonoscopy is the examination of the lower part of the gastrointestinal tract called the colon or colon.

Colonoscopy is a low-risk procedure that provides very useful information about the colon that cannot be obtained by imaging and other tests.

The physician is performing colonoscopy by using a device called a colonoscope, which is a flexible tube with an imaging system.

The physician is inserting The colonoscope through the anus into the large intestine and uses it to see the large intestine from head to toe.

It may take from 20 minutes for purely diagnostic cases to one hour for treatment.



In what cases is necessary?

The most common reasons for having a colonoscopy are:

– Diagnosis of intestinal polyps or colon cancer

– Excretion of blood from the anus and its evaluation

It takes a long time to change your bowel habits, such as diarrhea

– Iron deficiency anemia

– Family history of colon cancer

– Unjustifiable abdominal pain

– Abnormal images on CT scan or bowel imaging.

Who needs?

  •  Over 50 years old person
  •  With a family history of inflammatory bowel disease or bowel cancer.
  •  Has diarrhea or constipation for more than a week.
  •  Notice blood in the stool.
  •  With a history of intestinal polyps.

Preparing to have a colonoscopy

Before the colonoscopy, you should thoroughly wash your bowel and clean so that your doctor can see exactly all parts of your bowel wall.

Your doctor will usually give you instructions on how to prepare your bowel. Read the instructions carefully at the earliest opportunity.

Ask your doctor if you have any questions about dietary changes or medications you may be taking for any other reason.

It is forbidden to eat solid foods for at least one day before a colonoscopy, and it is important to get plenty of fluids 48 hours before the colonoscopy.

It can last up to about 6 hours before a colonoscopy (including water and other clear liquids such as purified broth, purified chicken broth, and light tea).

A strong laxative is usually used to wash the bowel, which may be instructed to use all doses of laxative the night before the colonoscopy, or to use it twice, the second time 4 to 6 hours before the colonoscopy.

Laxatives are usually in the form of solutions that you must prepare according to your doctor’s instructions. Refrigerating a solution may make it easier for you to eat, but avoid adding ice to it.

It may be easier to drink with a special straw. Eating this solution is probably the most unpleasant part of a colonoscopy.

It is expected to cause watery diarrhea, which may occur shortly after drinking the solution, or even be delayed for hours after drinking it. If you experience nausea or vomiting, it is best to tell your doctor to resolve the issue.

colonoscopy examination

colonoscopy examination

Possible prescribed medications

You can continue to take most of the medications you use, until the day before.

Your doctor will inform you about the medications you need to stop before this procedure. Be sure to tell your doctor about possible drug allergies, and especially if you are taking anticoagulants or antiplatelet medications.

To return home, you will need someone to accompany you, as you will usually receive a sedative or hypnotic medication for a colonoscopy. protocols will not allow you to drive or return to work on the day of the colonoscopy.


Before the colonoscopy, your doctor will talk to you briefly about what is going to do, explain the possible side effects, and sign a consent form.

The doctor will give you an intravenous serum and will monitor your blood pressure and heart rate during a colonoscopy.

The flexible tube colonoscope is about the diameter of a finger. T

he device is pumping the air slowly into the colon and the physician will assess its wall soon as the intestinal wall opens.

You may feel bloating or pain caused by flatulence while having a colonoscopy.

Don’t be embarrassed by gas leaking out of the anus because the air is related to the device.

During an intestinal wall sample or bowel polyp may be sampled by an internal medicine specialist.

colonoscopy procedure

colonoscopy procedure


They will usually monitor you in a recovery unit until the effects of anesthetic and hypnotic drugs disappear.

The most common complaint after colonoscopy is a feeling of gas accumulation and possible pain caused by it, which gradually disappears with the excretion of intestinal gas.

Feelings of inadequacy or weakness from medications may also last for several hours. As mentioned above, you can not drive or return to work on the day of the colonoscopy.

If they previously treated you with anticoagulants or aspirin, talk to your doctor about starting and when to start.


Although side effects are rare, they can occur.

  • Bleeding following sampling or polyps may occur but is usually mild and controlled.
  • Damage to the intestinal wall, such as a rupture, is a rare complication
  • Side effects of sleeping pills and anesthesia.


After a colonoscopy, tell your doctor immediately if you have any of the following:
  • Severe abdominal pain (mild heartburn caused by natural gas)
  • Severely dilated and hardened abdomen
  • Vomit
  • Fever
  • Continuation of blood excretion (excretion of anemia up to about 30 cc after biopsy or polypectomy is normal)



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Author: Maryam shiani

SEO editor: Samane Nobakhti

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