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Kidney disease occurs when the kidneys lose their ability to function. Several diseases and medications can lead to kidney failure which is divided into two types acute and chronic. In the previous article acute kidney failure
is explained completely here the second is introduced .
Chronic kidney disease (CKD)
The gradual loss of renal function. The kidney filters out all the waste and excess liquids from the blood, and then they are excreted in the urine. When chronic kidney disease reaches the advanced stage, the amount of fluids, electrolytes and waste products in the body can rise to dangerous levels.
In the early stages of chronic kidney disease, you may have few symptoms. Chronic kidney disease may not manifest itself until the kidney function is significantly affected.
The treatment of chronic kidney disease focuses on reducing the rate of progression of kidney damage, by controlling the factors that cause it. Chronic kidney disease may eventually lead to the last stage of kidney failure; in this situation, the person will die without artificial filtration (dialysis) or a kidney transplant.
Common causes of CKD include:
• Uncontrolled diabetes
• High blood pressure
Therefore, it is recommended that people with diabetes and hypertension take their disease seriously and take timely and regular treatment to prevent kidney failure.
• The third cause of kidney failure and malfunction is inflammatory diseases of the blood purifying cells or glomerulonephritis, the cause of which is unknown.
• Some hereditary diseases such as hereditary cystic kidney disease, large and obstructive kidney stones and drug abuse such as heroin can also cause kidney failure.
At the onset of kidney deficiency, it can be completely asymptomatic and when your kidney function is reduced by about 90%, the symptoms may be seen as high blood pressure, protein excretion, urinary frequency, elevated blood urea and creatinine, swelling of the eyelids hands and feet, general weakness and lethargy, decreased appetite and bad breath.
In the first step of diagnosing kidney disease, your doctor will ask questions about your personal and family history; he or she may ask you about a history of high blood pressure, kidney injury, changes in urinary habits, and kidney disease in your family. Slow.
Your doctor will then do a physical examination, check for signs of cardiovascular disease, and perform a neurological examination.
To diagnose kidney disease, you may need the following tests and processes:
• Blood test. Kidney function tests examine the levels of waste products such as urea and creatinine in the blood.
• Urinalysis. Urine sample analysis can reveal abnormalities associated with chronic kidney failure and help find the cause of the disease.
• Imaging. Your doctor may evaluate the structure and size of your kidneys using ultrasound. Other imaging methods may also be used in some cases.
• Biopsy of kidney tissue for examination. Your doctor may prescribe a kidney biopsy to remove part of your kidney tissue. Kidney biopsy is often performed with local anesthesia, using a long, narrow needle that enters the kidney through the skin. A biopsy sample is sent to the lab to find out the cause of the kidney disease.
Depending on the cause of the disease, some kidney diseases are treatable; however, chronic kidney disease often has no cure.
Treatment usually includes measures that help control the signs and symptoms, reduce secondary complications, and slow the progression of the disease. If your kidneys are severely damaged, you may need treatment for the end stage of kidney disease which means you are a kidney transplant candidate.